SE: Indicators


This is the awareness of the feelings, needs, concerns of others, and even the understanding of the physical and psychological situations that another person is going through without verbalising it. Ability to give an appropriate response to others through a deep understanding of their emotional and cognitive world, while still distinguishing between one's own self and the self of others.


The construct was first proposed by Wolpe (1958) and later by Alberti and Emmons (1970), who understand it as: behaviour that fosters equality in human relations, enabling us to act in defence of our own interests, to defend ourselves without unjustified anxiety, to express our feelings sincerely and pleasantly, and to put our personal rights into practice while respecting the rights of others

Conflict resolution

Conflict is inherent in nature and occurs in all areas of development. If when a conflict appears, we know how to manage it and we know how to analyse what provokes it, we are in a moment of personal development. Now, when conflict appears, what response do we give? This subscale refers to "the transition from a painful emotional state, produced by opposing and contradictory desires or interests, to a state of well-being and tranquillity on the part of all those previously involved in the conflict situation" (Repetto, 2007).

Interpersonal emotional regulation

Ability to appropriately manage the emotions of the people around us. It has been proven that we try to change the emotional state of the people around us, either to make them feel better (in the face of a loss, an upset) or to make them feel worse. In short, it consists of not letting ourselves be carried away by our first emotional impulses, because we are aware of the personal and social consequences of giving in to the impulse.


It involves the harnessing of collective talent, produced by each person in interaction with others.
The development of teamwork is a spiral process, the effectiveness of which depends on the extent to which the group also contributes to the personal development of its members.

Group cohesion

The concept of cohesion describes those processes that contribute to the members of a group remaining together. In other words, cohesion exists when the system of interrelationships that functions among its members keeps them successfully connected to the group.

Group influence

One member of the group, or a minority, can exert great influence on the group. Sometimes the influence can be creative and constructive and sometimes the influence can be due to fear, submissiveness, etc. In the test results we will be able to observe who influences the group without determining its aetiology.

Group rejection

The rejected member of a group suffers the consequences of rejection which may be undermining their self-esteem, confidence and motivation to learn from the group and to perform well academically. We can observe students who are directly rejected by others.

Group integration

A student can be said to be "integrated" in the classroom when he/she maintains a network of interrelationships with the rest of the group and they generate a feeling of dependence on the group.